Factors affecting tyre performance
The factors which influence tyre life:
- The science and the technology that has gone into producing even the best quality of tyre will go waste if the tyres are not inflated to the recommended pressure – Pressure comensurating to the load carried. The best performance of tyres can only be achieved when the tyre is inflated to the designated pressure based on the load per tyre.
- “Under inflation” or “Over inflation” on the tyre tend to impact tyre life, vehicle handling and safety. There are two factors with weight distribution of the vehicle. One is contact patch and other linked to the tyre wear. This result in heat buildup/tyre temperature and thus loss of tyre life, premature tyre removals, increased rolling resistance and fuel consumption.
- “Under Inflation” is more common than Over inflation. Tyre users are not always conscious about maintaining or matching tyre pressure to the loads carried.
- In pneumatic tyre the “Air carries the load”. The best tyre performance and lower tyre CPKM are obtained by maintaining correct tyre inflation pressure.
- It is important to remember that the total weight (GVW) carried may not exceed the registered laden weight (RLW) or vehicle passing weight, but one side of the truck or one axle may be severely overloaded due to improper distribution of the load in the pay load platform or loading area.
- Improper load distribution overloads the tyre(s). This condition combines with high speed , long hauls and load transfers result in tyres wearing fast and premature removal of tyres
Loads and Loading practices
- It is important to remember that even one trip of the truck, with improper load distribution may cause irreversible damage to the tyres.
- Excessive high speeds results in increased tyre running temperature. As the rubber gets heated up its modulus (stiffness) gets reduced.
- Rubber being a good non conductor of heat the residual heat is retained causing increased tyre wear and separation of components.
- A vehicle is said to be properly align when all the steering and suspension components and set as per the vehicle manufacturer and when the tyre wheel assembly are running straight and true.
- Proper alignment is necessary for perfect vehicle control, uniform and even tyre wear and safety.
- Recommended to get the vehicle alignment checked and corrected as per vehicle owner’s manual as soon as tyre are wearing unevenly or ride handling problems(vibrations, pulling to one side etc).
- A wheel which is not properly balanced may setup vibrations which can affect steering control. Wheels, tyres and tubes are usually checked for balance before leaving factory.
- This balance is achieved by positioning weights on the wheel to counterbalance heavy spots on the tyre wheel assembly.
- Properly balanced tyres are important for driving comfort and long tyre life.
- Tyres should be balanced when they are mounted on the wheels for the first time or when they are removed for repair or periodically as per vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations.
Purpose of Tyre Rotation
Tyre rotation is always advisable to equalize wear and thereby increase tread life, since each set of tyres serves a different purpose. Rotation increases the life of tyres because each tyre shares jobs through out the rotation cycle. Thus, wear will be evenly distributed and the natural wear resistance of tyres will be reinforced.
Tyre Rotation Guideline
a) New tyres should be rotated for the first time after 10% of expected life.
b) Subsequent tyre rotations should be performed every 10,000-20,000km.
** Strict adherence to these procedures will extend tyre life leading toimproved economy.
As our tests reveal, tyres expected life can vary markedly
depending on it`s periodic rotation schedule.
There are many patterns for tyre rotation.Following figures are example.
- Vehicle /tyre operating conditions which significantly influence tyre life both in terms of new tyre life and structural durability.
- Rough/abbrrasive road surface
- Paved road
- Straight road
- Broken up roads
- Hilly windings roads
- Unmade country roads
- Careful driving habits will ensure optimum tyre life, unavoidable damages besides avoiding serious road accidents. Some of the habits which cause serious damages to tyre and road accidents are:
- Over speeding
- Speeding over pot holes, stone etc.
- Quick starts and sudden stops
- Riding over road divider and other obstacles
- Sharp turns at high speeds
- Hitting the road, curbs, objects etc.
- Running on improperly inflated tyres
- Climatic and whether conditions in our country varies widely from region to region. Dry and extremely hot during summer, extreme cold during winter and rains during monsoon.
- This variation in climatic conditions influence tyre life in terms of mileage and structural durability.
Tyre Wear Factors
The proper inflation pressure is essential for maximised performance of all kinds of tyre. JK Tyre recommends proper maintenance and utilization of a calibrated gauge/inflation pressure sticker or TPMS.
The tyre wear depends upon load carried. JK Tyre recommends maintaining the correct axle and pay loads.
STOP/GO OPERATION (Braking Abrasion)
Frequent " stop and go " results in additional stress and abrasion to tyres. JK Tyre recommends mild steering & braking especially while turning and curving in urban and local use.
TRAILER AXLES(without liftup and / or steer axle)
Trailer tyre wear is dependent on the sideforce of axles of trailers. JK Tyre recommends proper tyre rotation for retreaded tyres also.
Do's & Dont's
- Tyre Pressure checks including the spare tyre must be done regularly at least once in two weeks.
- Tyre pressure should be checked using an accurate pressure gauge.
- Tyre pressure should be checked when tyres are cold.
- Under inflation and over inflation will cause rapid tread wear and premature tyre failures.
- Tyre pressure should always be maintained as per the vehicle manufacturers recommendations, mentioned at information placard, at door, owners manual.